Red fir series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<60 m
Series canopy cover:ci
Series ground layer:sa
Elevation range (lower):1400
(upper):   2700
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:slopes, all aspects; raised stream benches and terraces. Soils shallow. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) lists red fir as a FACU.
Reference:Noble fir, Red fir ranges in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Laacke 1990b). Barbour (1984, 1988), Franklin (1990), Gordon (1980b), Heckart & Hickman (1984), Laacke & Fiske (1983a), Oosting & Billings (1943), Rundel et al. (1977), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977).
Comments:Abies magnifica has two varieties [ A. m. var. magnifica (red fir) and A. m. var. shastensis (Shasta fir)]. Red fir grows in NorCo, SN, CasR; Shasta fir in NorCo, KlaR, CasR, s. SN. The closely related A. procera (noble fir) grows in w. m-KlaR. The nature and extent of noble fir in CA is unresolved. Griffin & Critchfield (1972) map it north of the Klamath River in the Siskiyou Mountains, and report populations in w. m-KlaR and m-NorCo. Parker (1991) argues that t is separate from Shasta fir where they grow in KlaR and CasR, but others [Franklin (1990), Laacke (1990b)] consider Nor-CA and s. OR a hybrid zone between Abies magnifica and A. procera . Liu (1972) goes as far as to not recognize A. m. var. shastensis, since he considers it an A. magnifica x procera hybrid.
Plot based descriptions:Barbour & Woodward (1985) report tree density, basal area, cover) for 86 red fir and Shasta fir-dominated stands throughout the species range; composition was consistent throughout its range. Gray (1978) reports importance values for stands in Lake and Sierra Cos. Simpson (1980) defines two associations in s. Siskiyou Mountains in Humboldt Co., Keeler-Wolf (1982, 1989d) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Cedar Basin candidate RNA, Imper (1988a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) defines three associations at Haypress Meadows candidate RNA, Keeler-Wolf (1984b, 1989f), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1971) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Sugar Creek candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co. m-KlaR, su-KlaR, Waddell (1982) defines two associations in Yolla Bolly Mountains n Tehama and Trinity Cos. NorCo, KlaR; Jimerson (1993) defines 17 associations in Mendocino and Six Rivers National Forests m-NorCo, m-KlaR, su-KlaR; Imper (1988b) in (Keeler-Wolf 1990) three associations at Shasta Fir candidate RNA (on Mt. Shasta), Fiedler (1987), Keeler-Wolf (1989g) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Antelope Creek Lakes candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co., Taylor & Randall (1978) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Cub Creek RNA in Tehama Co. m-CasR; Talley (1977), Keeler-Wolf (1989j) in eeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Babbitt Peak RNA in Sierra Co., Keeler-Wolf & Keeler-Wolf (1981), Keeler-Wolf (1989k) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Mt. Pleasant RNA in Plumas Co., Keeler-Wolf (1991b) stands at Mountaineer Creek candidate RNA in Tulare Co , Keeler-Wolf (1985b, 1988c) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Mud Lake RNA in Plumas Co., Keeler-Wolf (1985c, 1989l) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Bell Meadow RNA, Talley (1976a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at W. B. Critchfield (formerly Bourland Mead w) RNA in Calaveras Co., Griffin (1975) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Teakettle Creek Experimental Forest in Fresno Co., Jensen (1992) reports tree density, basal area, frequency at Home Camp candidate RNA in Fresno Co. m-SN, Potter (1994) defines 12 regional associations in c. SN.
Series Association:Imper (1988a): Shasta fir/Sadler oak association, Shasta fir/thinleaf huckleberry association, Shasta fir/vanilla leaf association. Imper (1988b): Shasta fir/pinemat manzanita association, Shasta fir/prince's-pine association, Shasta fir/slender penstemon association, Jimerson (1993): Port Orford-cedar - red fir/Sadler oak - thinleaf huckleberry association, Red fir/Sadler oak association, Red fir/Sadler oak-pinemat manzanita association, Red fir -incense-cedar association, Red fir/one-sided shinleaf association, Red fir/rhododendron association, Red fir/white-veined shinleaf association, Red fir-Brewer spruce/Sadler oak-thinleaf huckleberry association, Red fir-mountain hemlock/one-sided shinleaf association, Red fir-white fir/bracken association, Red fir-white fir/heartleaf arnica association, Red fir-white fir/creeping snowberry/white- veined shinleaf association, Red fir-white fir/creeping snowberry-wild rose association, Red fir-white fir/Sadler oak association, Red fir-white fir/pinemat manzanita association, Red fir-white fir/vanilla leaf association. Potter (1994): Red fir association, Red fir/lodgepole pine/whiteflower hawkweed association, Red fir/lodgepole pine association, Red fir/mule's ears association, Red fir/pinemat manzanita association, Red fir-western white pine/pinemat manzanita association, Red fir-western white pine-lodgepole pine association, Red fir-western white pine association, Red fir/western white pine/bush chinquapin association, Red fir-white fir association, Red fir-white fir-Jeffrey pine association, White fir-sugar pine-red fir association, Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977): Shasta fir/black-laurel association, Shasta fir/huckleberry oak association, Shasta fir/prince's-pine association [= Imper (1988b)], Shasta fir/twinflower association, Shasta fir/white-veined shinleaf association. Simpson (1980): Shasta fir/pinemat manzanita association, Shasta fir/Sadler association. Waddell (1982): Red fir/silver lupine association, Red fir/white-veined shinleaf association.
FormationMixed broad-leaved evergreen-cold deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Red fir series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Red fir series
Common species: View common species for: Red fir series

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