Whitebark pine series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<30 m
Series canopy cover:io
Series ground layer:sa
Elevation range (lower):2220
(upper):   3660
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all slopes, but most extensive on crests, ridges, summits, upper slopes to forestline and above. Soils loose, well-drained, may be rocky.
Reference:Whitebark pine range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Arno & Hoff 1990). Arno (1980), Barbour (1988), Franklin (1980a), Rundel et\cs34\f53\fs18\expnd0\expndtw-2\kerning1 (1977), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b).
Comments:Whitebark pine grows at timberline in many CA mountains. "Timberline" is a vague term used to describe the elevation of the last stand of trees on the mountain (forestline), or the last erect tree (treeline) or the last shrub even if it is < 1 dm tall (krummholzline) (Price 1981). Forestline is preferred by many ecologists to differentiate subalpine forests from the herb-dominated vegetation of the alpine zone with scattered trees or shrubs. But in SN, forests are open at their upper elevations making even forestline difficult to interpret. This Whitebark pine series definition includes both forests and woodlands. Individual trees or krummholz occur in the alpine zone.
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1987a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Crater Creek candidate RNA, Keeler-Wolf (1984b, 1989f), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1971) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) at Sugar Creek candidate RNA, Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b) define one association in Siskiyou Co. su-KlaR; Feidler (1987), Keeler-Wolf (1989g) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Antelope Creek candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co. su-CasR; Tomback (1986) reports post-fire tree regeneration in Yosemite National Park, Taylor (1984) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) defines two associations at Harvey Monroe Hall RNA in Mono Co. su-SN; Talley (1978) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Sentinel Me dow RNA in Inyo Co. TraSN; Riegel et al. (1990) define three associations in the South Warner Mountains in Modoc Co. s. su-WarR.
Series Association:Riegel et al. (1990): Whitebark pine/California needlegrass association, Whitebark pine/slender penstemon association, Whitebark pine/woody sandwort association [as Whitebark pine/ Arenaria aculeata association]. Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b): Whitebark pine/ocean spray association. Taylor (1984): Whitebark pine/Wheeler bluegrass association [as Pinus albicaulis/Poa nervosa association], Whitebark pine/Davidson penstemon association.
FormationTemperate or sub-polar needle-leaved evergreen forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Whitebark pine series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Whitebark pine series
Common species: View common species for: Whitebark pine series

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