White fir series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<60 m
Series canopy cover:ci
Series ground layer:a
Elevation range (lower):1400
(upper):   2700
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:slopes, all aspects; raised stream benches and terraces. Soils well-drained. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) does not list white fir.
Reference:White fir range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Laacke 1990a). Barbour (1988), Franklin (1988), Gordon (1980b), Hendrickson & Prigge (1975), Laacke & Fiske (1983a), Minnich (1987), Paysen et al. (1980), Rundel et al. (1977), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b), Stone & Sumida
Comments:Abies concolor has two varieties [ A. c. var. concolor (Rocky Mountain white fir or race) and A. c. var. lowiana (Sierran white fir or race (Hamrick & Libby 1972)]. Rocky Mountain white fir grows in the m-TraR, m-PenR, m-DesR,; Sierran white fir in NorCo, KlaR, CasR, SN, GB. In the Flora of North America the races are awarded species rank, and populations in KlaR are considered A. lowiana (Flora of America Committee 1993). The closely related A. grandis (grand fir) grows in o-NorCo, and transition populations between Sierra white fir and grand fir occur in w. m-NorCo, w. m-KlaR (Griffin & Critchfield 1972). Since the two varieties have a similar ecology (Barbour 1988a, Laacke 1990b), they are included in this series. Varietal differences can be handled at the association level.
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1986c, 1988b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Doll Basin candidate RNA, Muldavin (1982) one association at Big Butte area in Mendocino Co., Thornburgh (1981), Keeler-Wolf (1989i) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Ruth candidate RN in Humboldt Co. m-NorCo.; Laidlaw-Holmes (1981) defines one association at South Fork Mountain in Trinity Co., Waddell (1982) two associations in Yolla Bolly Mountains in Tehama and Trinity Cos. in NorCo & KlaR; Imper (1988a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) thre associations at Haypress Meadows candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co., Sawyer (1981b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) two associations at North Trinity Mountain candidate RNA in Humboldt Co., Taylor & Teare (1979a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association in Manzanita Creek candidate RNA in Trinity Co., Jimerson (1993) associations in Six Rivers National Forest, Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b) five associations in m-KlaR generally; Conard chaux (1980) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Soda Ridge candidate RNA in Tehama Co. m-CasR; Conard & Radosevich (1982) report tree density and basal area for stands in Sierra Co., Jensen (1992) tree density, basal area, and frequency for stands and understory frequency at Home Camp candidate RNA in Fresno Co., Keeler-Wolf (1991 ) tree density, basal area, and frequency for white fir-sugar pine stands at Mountaineer Creek candidate RNA in Tulare Co., Fites (1993) define 9 associations [as Mixed conifer associations] in Lassen, Plumas, Tahoe, Eldorado National Forests m-CasR, m-S , Talley (1977), Keeler-Wolf (1989j) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Babbitt Peak RNA in Sierra Co., Keeler-Wolf (1985b, 1988c) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Mud Lake RNA in Plumas Co., Talley (1976b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Onion Creek in Placer Co., Taylor & Randall (1977b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Station Creek RNA in El Dorado Co., Keeler-Wolf (1985c, 1989l) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Bell Meadow RNA in Calaveras Co. m-SN; Burke (1992b) reports cover for stands at Horse Meadows candidate RNA in San Bernardino Co. i. m-TraR; Jensen & Schierenback (1990), Schierenback & Jensen (1994) tree density, basal area, and frequency at Raider Basin candidate RNA in Modoc Co. WarR; Taylor (1980) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) defines two a sociations at Indiana Summit RNA in Mono Co. TraSN.
Series Association:Fites (1993): White fir/bush chinquapin association, White fir/creeping snowberry/kelloggia association, White fir-Pacific dogwood/bush chinquapin association, White fir-Pacific dogwood/hazel association, White fir-Pacific dogwood/trail plant association, White fir/Ross sedge association, White fir/Solomon's seal-Hooker fairybells association, White fir/trail plant association, White fir/vine maple-bush chinquapin association. Imper (1988a): White fir/pinemat manzanita association, White fir/prince's-pine association, White fir/vanilla leaf association. Jimerson (1993): Port Orford-cedar - Shasta fir/Sadler oak-thinleaf huckleberry association, Shasta fir-white fir/mountain maple association, Shasta fir-white fir/pinemat manzanita association, Shasta fir-white fir/trail penstemon-pennyroyal association, White fir/heartleaf arnica association, White fir/creeping snowberry association, White fir - Douglas-fir/beargrass association, White fir -Douglas-fir/bigleaf maple association, White fir - Douglas-fir/heartleaf arnica association, White fir -Douglas-fir - canyon live oak association, White fir -Douglas-fir/Sadler oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir/Sadler oak-pinemat manzanita association, White fir - Douglas-fir/mountain maple association, White fir - Douglas-fir/rhododendron-Sadler oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir/vanilla leaf association, White fir - Douglas-fir/wild rose-creeping snow- berry association, White fir - incense-cedar - black oak association, White fir - incense-cedar/creeping snowberry association, White fir - incense-cedar/white-veined shinleaf association, White fir/little prince's-pine - white-veined shinleaf association, White fir/serviceberry association, White fir/wild rose association, White fir/wild rose-creeping snowberry association, White fir-Brewer spruce/Sadler oak-thinleaf huckleberry association, White fir-chinquapin association, White fir-chinquapin-sugar pine/prince's-pine association, White fir-Douglas-fir/Alaska oniongrass association, White fir-Douglas-fir/bear-grass association, White fir-Douglas-fir/bigleaf maple association, White fir-Douglas-fir/heartleaf arnica association, White fir-Douglas-fir/Sadler oak association, White fir-Douglas-fir/Sadler oak-huckleberry oak association, White fir-Douglas-fir/Sadler oak-pinemat manzanita association, White fir-Douglas-fir/Sadler oak-rhododendron association, White fir-Douglas-fir/hazel association, White fir-Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak association, White fir-Douglas-fir/mountain maple association, White fir-Douglas-fir/thimbleberry association, White fir-Douglas-fir/vanilla leaf association, White fir-Douglas-fir/vine maple association, White fir-Douglas-fir/wild rose-twinflower- creeping snowberry association, White fir-Douglas-fir/wild rose-twinflower association, White fir-incense-cedar/creeping snowberry association, White fir-incense-cedar/white-veined shinleaf association, White fir-Shasta fir/Sadler oak association, White fir-Shasta fir/white-veined shinleaf association, White fir-Shasta fir/threeleaf anemone association. Laidlaw-Holmes (1981): White fir/huckleberry oak association [including Chinquapin phase, Madrone phase]. Sawyer (1981b): White fir/bracken association, White fir/Sadler oak association. Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977b): White fir/American vetch association, White fir/little Oregon-grape association, White fir/prince's-pine association, White fir/mahala carpet association, White fir/trillium association. Taylor & Randall (1977b): White fir/bitter cherry association, White fir/rattlesnake-plantain association. Taylor & Teare (1979b): White fir/mountain maple association
FormationMixed needle-leafed evergreen-cold deciduous forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: White fir series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: White fir series
Common species: View common species for: White fir series

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