Sitka spruce series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<75 m
Series canopy cover:ci
Series ground layer:a
Elevation range (lower):0
(upper):   20
Wetland information:Wetlands:soils seasonally flooded, seasonally saturated, permanently saturated. Water chemistry: fresh. Stream and river backwaters, bottoms, floodplains; raised maritime terraces with perched watertables. Cowardin class: Palustrine forested wetland. Uplands: steep, seaward slopes near ocean. Soils sandstone, schist-derived. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) lists Sitka spruce as a FAC.
Upland information: Uplands:steep, seaward slopes near ocean. Soils sandstone, schist-derived. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) lists Sitka spruce as a FAC.
Reference:Sitka spruce range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Harris 1990b). Franklin (1988), Harris (1980a, 1990b), Harris & Johnson (1983), Minore (1980), Zinke (1977).
Comments:Old-growth stands of Sitka spruce series forests are rare in NorCo. Most stands are in shrub or young forest stages. Stands of cascara, hazel, Oregon crab apple, western azalea, and other shrubs are quickly invaded by Sitka spruce. Azalea Reserve and Stagecoach Hill in Lagoons State Park are managed to maintain azalea. Young forests of these settings support stands of the Red alder series as well.
Plot based descriptions:Imper & Sawyer (1987) defines three associations at Table Bluff Ecological Reserve, NDDB has descriptions at Prairie Creek Redwood State Park and Redwood National Park in Humboldt Co., Westman & Whittaker (1975) de-fine one association in Mendocino Co. o-NorCo.
Series Association:Imper & Sawyer (1987): Sitka spruce/false lily-of-the-valley association, Sitka spruce/salmonberry association, Sitka spruce/sword fern association. Westman & Whittaker (1975): Sitka spruce-western hemlock association [as Spruce-hemlock type].
FormationTemperate or sub-polar needle-leaved evergreen forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Sitka spruce series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Sitka spruce series
Common species: View common species for: Sitka spruce series

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