Mixed conifer series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<70 m
Series canopy cover:i
Series ground layer:sa
Elevation range (lower):900
(upper):   2200
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all aspects. Soils shallow, well-drained.
Reference:Conifers range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972). Barbour (1988), Kinloch & Scheuner (1990), Laacke & Fiske (1983b), Minnich (1987), Pase (1982c), Minore & Kingsley (1983), Paysen et al. (1980), Rundel et al. (1977), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977), Stone & Sumida (1983), Tappeiner (1980), Vankat (1970, 1978, 1982)
Comments:The term mixed conifer forest or mixed coniferous forest has been used in many ways. In CA the term generally refers to m-SN forests with up to five conifers [including Douglas-fir, incense-cedar, ponderosa pine, sugar pine, or white fir].Stands having his mix, or several of these conifers, can be found in NorCo, KlaR, CasR. In TraR, PenR, bigcone Douglas-fir may be present. Stands with this makeup that are dominated by one species or have two important trees in canopy have been called mixed conifer as well.
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1986c, 1988b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Doll Basin candidate RNA in Mendocino Co., Thorn-burgh (1981), Keeler-Wolf (1989i) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) at Ruth candidate RNA in Humboldt Co. m-NorCo; Keeler-W olf (1991a) reports tree density, basal area, frequency for stands at Big Pine Mountain proposed RNA in Santa Barbara Co. m-CenCo; Keeler-Wolf (1987b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Pearch Creek in Humboldt Co., Keeler-Wolf (1987c) in Keeler -Wolf (1990e) at Rock Creek Butte candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co., Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977) define two associations m-KlaR; Taylor & Randall (1978) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) at Cub Creek RNA in Butte Co. m-CasR; Palmer (1981) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) at Sugar Pine Point RNA in Placer Co., Fites (1993) defines 12 associations in Lassen, Plumas, Eldorado Na-tional Forests m-SN; Sproul (1981) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Falls Canyon RNA in Los Angeles Co. i. m-TraR; Keeler-Wolf (1986e, 1988e) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) at Hall Canyon RNA in Riverside Co. m-PenR.
Series Association:Fites (1993): Mixed conifer/Bolander bedstraw-milkwort association, Mixed conifer/huckleberry oak association, Mixed conifer/rosy everlasting- naked-stemmed buckwheat association, Mixed conifer/service berry association, Mixed conifer/canyon live oak-huckleberry oak association, Mixed conifer/starflower association, Mixed conifer-canyon live oak/hazel association, Mixed conifer-canyon live oak/Bolander bedstraw association, Mixed conifer-canyon live oak/mountain misery association, Mixed conifer-canyon live oak/sword fern association, Mixed conifer-tanoak/mountain misery association, Mixed conifer-tanoak/creeping snowberry/iris association. Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977): Mixed conifer/little Oregon-grape association [as White fir/little Oregon-grape association], Mixed conifer/mahala carpet association [as White fir/mahala carpet association].
FormationTemperate or sub-polar needle-leaved evergreen forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Mixed conifer series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Mixed conifer series
Common species: View common species for: Mixed conifer series

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