Leather oak series
Section: shrb Series Dominated by Shrubs
Series formation: 
Series height:<1.5 m
Series canopy cover:i
Series ground layer:s
Elevation range (lower):150
(upper):   1500
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all slopes. Soils shallow, serpentinite-derived, may be rocky.
Reference:Hanes (1977, 1981), Keeley & Keeley (1988), Kruckeberg (1984).
Comments:Habitats of this series are famous for restricted species. Locally important shrubs as coyote ceanothus (a CNPS List 1B plant), Raiche manzanita (a CNPS List 1B plant), Tamalpais manzanita (a CNPS List 1B plant), and The Cedars manzanita (a CNPS List 1B plant) are found in this series (Skinner & Pavlik 1994). Several tree-dominated series share species and habitat with this series [ see California juniper series, Foothill pine series, Knobcone pine series, McNab cypress series, Sargent cypress series]. There can be a few trees present in the stands of this series.
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1983) Keeler-Wolf (1990e) defines a Serpentinite chaparral at Frenzel Creek RNA in Colusa Co. i-NorCo.
Series Association:[not available]
FormationTemperate broad-leaved evergreen shrubland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Leather oak series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Leather oak series
Common species: View common species for: Leather oak series

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