Knobcone pine series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<25 m
Series canopy cover:cio
Series ground layer:s
Elevation range (lower):180
(upper):   2000
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:ridges, upper slopes. Noted in literature for growing on ultramafic parent materials, but common on others as well. Soils infertile, rocky, dry.
Reference:Knobcone pine range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972). Colwell (1980), Keeley & Keeley (1978), Kruckeberg (1984), Paysen et al. (1980), Vogl (1973), Vogl et al. (1977).
Comments:Knobcone pine is present, often an important species in other series throughout its range, but not dominant as in this series. In some stands the trees are dense with few other species present; others are open with a sparse or abundant shrub layer. Often the pine is found as individual trees emerging though a dense, continuous shrub canopy [ see Key to series dominated by shrubs]. Many stands are even-aged and related to fire; others are all-aged. The pine is known for its persistent, closed-cone habit, but the percentage of trees in a stand with persistent, closed cones varies greatly among stands. Keeler-Wolf (1990e) qualitatively describes stands at Frenzel Creek RNA in Colusa Co. i-NorCo; Bridge Creek candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co., Pearch Creek in Humboldt Co. m-KlaR.
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1987e) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) report tree density and basal area atHale Ridge candidate RNA Lake Co. o-NorCo; Imper (1991a) defines one association at Craigs Creek candidate RNA in Del Norte Co., Taylor & Teare (1979b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Manzanita Creek candidate RNA in Trinity Co. m-KlaR; Imper ( 991b) one association at Mayfield candidate RNA in Shasta Co. m-CasR; Vogl et al. (1977) describes stands in the Santa Ana Mountains in Orange Co. o-SoCo.
Series Association:Imper (1991a): Knobcone pine/hairy manzanita association [including Knobcone pine forest and Knobcone pine-tanoak forest]. Imper (1991b): Knobcone pine/greenleaf manzanita association [as Knobcone pine forest]. Taylor & Teare (1979a): Knobcone pine/huckleberry oak association.
FormationMixed needle-leafed evergreen-cold deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Knobcone pine series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Knobcone pine series
Common species: View common species for: Knobcone pine series

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