Interior live oak-chaparral whitethorn shrub series
Section: shrb Series Dominated by Shrubs
Series formation: 
Series height:<6 m
Series canopy cover:ci
Series ground layer:?
Elevation range (lower):900
(upper):   1950
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:slopes south-facing, may be steep. Soils shallow, may be rocky.
Reference:Hanes (1977, 1981), Horton (1960), Griffin (1977), Keeley & Keeley (1988), Minnich (1976), Pase (1982a), Patric & Hanes (1964), White (1991).
Comments:Interior live oak is a widespread and common species in shrublands and forests. Stands where it occurs as a shrub, either because it is presumably distinct [ Quercus wislizenii var. frutescens ] or because of age, are included in this series. Many of the So-CA shrub stands are believed to be the result of frequent sprouting after fires (White & Sawyer 1995). Stands old enough to form woodlands and forests are included in the Interior live oak eries. This series definition follows Gordon & White (1994). If interior live oak as a shrub has > 60% cover, the stand is a member of the Interior live oak shrub series. If interior live oak as a shrub cover is 60-30% an d chaparral whitethorn cover 30-60%, then the stand is a member of this series [ see Interior live oak-scrub oak shrub series, Interior live oak-canyon live oak shrub series]. Keeler-Wolf (1990e) qualitatively describes interior live oak shrub stands at Fall Canyon RNA in Los Angeles Co. i. m-TraR; at Cahuilla Mountain RNA in Riverside Co. m-PenR.
Plot based descriptions:Gordon & White (1994) define two associations, White & Sawyer (1995) one association in m-TraR, m-PenR.
Series Association:Gordon & White (1994): Shrub interior oak-chaparral whitethorn association [= Oak-ceanothus shrubland (White & Sawyer 1995)], Shrub interior oak-chaparral whitethorn-(Eastwood manzanita) association.
FormationMixed broad-leaved evergreen-cold deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Interior live oak-chaparral whitethorn shrub series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Interior live oak-chaparral whitethorn shrub series
Common species: View common species for: Interior live oak-chaparral whitethorn shrub series

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