Foothill pine series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<20 m
Series canopy cover:o
Series ground layer:sg
Elevation range (lower):300
(upper):   2100
Wetland information:Wetlands:soils intermittently flooded. Water chemistry: fresh. Terraces. Cowardin class: Palustrine forested wetland. valleys, slopes gentle to steep. Soils shallow, infertile, moderately to excessively drained. Surface may be covered with stones and rock outcrops.
Upland information: Uplands:valleys, slopes gentle to steep. Soils shallow, infertile, moderately to excessively drained. Surface may be covered with stones and rock outcrops.
Reference:pine range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Powers 1990). Graves (1932), Griffin (1965), Hanes (1977), Kruckeberg (1984), Klyver (1931), Paysen et al. (1980), Yeaton et al. (1980).
Comments:Several series have foothill pine as a component. It is especially common in Blue oak series stands. In Foothill pine series stands, however, blue oak is infrequent or absent. Foothill pine commonly emerges from a shrub canopy in foothill locations. The tree forms stands over grass in valleys. Other trees (black oak, California buckeye, coast live oak, Coulter pine, interior live oak, valley oak, western juniper) may mix with foothill pine locally. Wetland stands o foothill pine are rare due to systematic removal of the species to increase pasture according to Powers (1990).
Plot based descriptions:Keeler-Wolf (1983) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Frenzel Creek RNA in Colusa Co. i-NorCo. Allen et al. (1989, 1991) define vegetation types with foothill pine. All have blue oak as an important tree with this pine. They are included in the Blue oak series.
Series Association:[not available]
FormationMixed broad-leaved evergreen-cold deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Foothill pine series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Foothill pine series
Common species: View common species for: Foothill pine series

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