Douglas-fir series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<75 m
Series canopy cover:i
Series ground layer:sa
Elevation range (lower):100
(upper):   1500
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all aspects; raised stream benches and terraces. Soils granite, sandstone, ser-pentine, schist, volcanic-derived.
Reference:Douglas-fir range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Hermann & Lavender 1990). Barbour (1988), Bolsinger & Jaramillo (1990), Franklin (1988), Franklin et al. (1981), Keeler-Wolf (1988a), McKee (1990), Paysen et al. (1980), Rundel et al. (1977), Sawyer & Thornburgh (1977), Williamson (1980), Williamson & Twombly (1983), Zuckerman (1990).
Comments:Pseudotsuga menziesii has two varieties, but only P. m. var. m. occurs in CA; P. m. var. glauca grows in the Rocky Mountains. The CA variety is widespread, grows in many series, and is associated with numerous species.
Plot based descriptions:Parker (1990) defines one association at Mount Tamalpais in Marin Co., Wainwright & Barbour (1984) one association at Annadel State Park in Sonoma Co. o-NorCo; Keeler-Wolf (1987b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Pearch Creek, Sawyer (1981a) efines one association at Adorni candidate RNA, Simpson (1980) four associations in s. Siskiyou Mountains in Humboldt Co ., Keeler-Wolf (1985a, 1989c) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes stands at Bridge Creek candidate RNA, Sawyer & Stillman (1977a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) define three associations at Specimen Creek, Stuart et al (1992) four associa-tions at Castle Crags State Park in Siskiyou Co. m-KlaR, Taylor & Teare (1979a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Manzanita Creek can-didate RNA, Laidlaw-Holmes (1981) one association at South Fork Mountain, Sawyer (1978a) one association at Preacher Meadows candidate RN A, Taylor (1975a, 1975b) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at South Fork Mountain candidate RNA in Trinity Co. m-KlaR; Jimerson (1993) 45 associations in Six Rivers National Forest and Mendocino National Forest in m-NorCo, m-KlaR; Fites (1993) five ssociations in Lassen, Plumas, Tahoe, Eldorado National Forest m-CasR, m-SN. Atzet & Wheeler (1984) define sw. OR associations.
Series Association:Fites (1993): Douglas-fir - bigleaf maple/hazel association, Douglas-fir - bigleaf maple/trail plant association, Douglas-fir - Pacific dogwood/hazel association, Douglas-fir/hazel/trail plant association. Jimerson (1993): Douglas-fir - California bay/poison-oak association, Douglas-fir - canyon live oak - madrone/ poison-oak association, Douglas-fir - canyon live oak/rockpile association, Douglas-fir - canyon live oak - tanoak association, Douglas-fir - chinquapin/bear-grass association, Douglas-fir - chinquapin/rhododendron - little Oregon-grape association, Douglas-fir - chinquapin/rhododendron - Sadler oak/bear-grass association, Douglas-fir - chinquapin - tanoak association, Douglas-fir - chinquapin - tanoak/little Oregon- grape association, Douglas-fir/hazel association, Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak association, Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak - bush tanoak association, Douglas-fir - incense-cedar/California fescue association, Douglas-fir/yerba de selva association, Douglas-fir - Oregon white oak/grass association, Douglas-fir/vine maple - little Oregon-grape association, Douglas-fir- bigleaf maple/sword fern association, Port Orford-cedar - Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak association, Port Orford-cedar - white fir/huckleberry oak association, Port Orford-cedar - white-fir/Sadler oak association, Red fir-white fir/pinemat manzanita association, White fir - chinquapin association, White fir - Douglas-fir/bear-grass association, White fir - Douglas-fir - bigleaf maple association, White fir - Douglas-fir - black oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir - canyon live oak/ white- veined shinleaf association, White fir - Douglas-fir - canyon live oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir - canyon live oak/white- flower hawkweed-grass association, White fir - Douglas-fir - canyon live oak/little Oregon-grape association, White fir - Douglas-fir - chinquapin/little Oregon-grape/vanilla leaf association, White fir - Douglas-fir/Sadler oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir/Sadler oak - huckleberry oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir/Sadler oak - pinemat manzanita association, White fir - Douglas-fir/grass association, White fir - Douglas-fir/hazel association, White fir - Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak association, White fir -Douglas-fir/yerba de selva association, White fir - Douglas-fir/rhododendron - Sadler oak association, White fir - Douglas-fir - tanoak/little Oregon- grape association, White fir -Douglas-fir/thimbleberry association, White fir - Douglas-fir/vine maple association, White fir - Douglas-fir/wild rose/twinflower association, White fir - incense-cedar/creeping snowberry association, White fir - Jeffrey pine/California fescue association. Keeler-Wolf (1985a, 1987a, 1989b): Douglas-fir/vanilla leaf association [as White fir-Douglas-fir forest and Transitional mixed evergreen - white fir - Douglas-fir forest]. Laidlaw-Holmes (1981): Douglas-fir/madrone association. Sawyer (1981a): Douglas-fir/rattlesnake plantain association. Sawyer et al. (1978): Douglas-fir/huckleberry oak association. Sawyer & Stillman (1977): Douglas-fir/greenleaf manzanita association, Douglas-fir/prince's-pine association, Douglas-fir/twinflower association. Simpson (1980): Douglas-fir/hazel association, Douglas-fir/inside-out flower association, Douglas-fir/rhododendron association, Douglas-fir/salal association.
FormationTemperate or sub-polar needle-leaved evergreen forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Douglas-fir series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Douglas-fir series
Common species: View common species for: Douglas-fir series

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