Cupleaf ceanothus-fremontia-oak series
Section: shrb Series Dominated by Shrubs
Series formation: 
Series height:<3 m
Series canopy cover:i
Series ground layer:s
Elevation range (lower):700
(upper):   1700
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:slopes north-facing. Soils shallow, may be rocky.
Reference:Hanes (1976, 1977, 1981), Horton (1960), Keeley & Keeley (1988), Zammit & Zedler (1992).
Comments:The various desert or semi-desert chaparral descriptions stress the open shrub canopy and mix of Cis-CA and Trans-CA species, but differ in species composition. Some allow a significant tree component. The series builds on the original desert chaparral definition (Horton 1960). If trees such as California juniper or singleleaf pinyon are common, the stand is not a member of this series [see California juniper series, Singleleaf pinyon series]. If California buck or chamise are dominant in a stand, they are assigned to those series even though the stands are in Trans-CA [ see California buckwheat series, Chamise series].
Plot based descriptions:Gordon & White (1994) describe four associations in m-PenR.
Series Association:Gordon & White (1994): Cupleaf ceanothus association, Birchleaf mountain-mahogany - chamise associa Birchleaf mountain-mahogany - fremontia associa Tucker oak or Muller oak association.
FormationExtremely xeromorphic mixed evergreen-deciduous shrubland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Cupleaf ceanothus-fremontia-oak series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Cupleaf ceanothus-fremontia-oak series
Common species: View common species for: Cupleaf ceanothus-fremontia-oak series

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