Canyon live oak series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<30 m
Series canopy cover:c
Series ground layer:s
Elevation range (lower):450
(upper):   2000
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all aspects; raised, stream benches and terraces; may occur in canyon bottoms near streams. Soils shallow, well-drained. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) does not list canyon live oak.
Reference:Canyon live oak ranges in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (Thornburgh 1990b). Barbour (1988), Borchert & Hibberd (1984), Cooper (1922), Mallory (1980), McDonald et al. (1983), Minnich (1976, 1980b, 1987), Myatt (1980), Paysen et al. (1980), Pavlik et al. (1991), Sawyer et al. (1977b), Shreve (1927).
Comments:Canyon live oak is common in several series, but it is more important in the tree canopy here than in other series. The canopy can be two-tiered, with an upper tier of conifer trees above a lower tier of canyon live oak, but the conifer component cannot be important. If the conifer component is important, than the stand may be part of another series [see Douglas- fir - tanoak series, Coulter pine-canyon live oak series, Bigcone Douglas-fir - canyon live oak series]. If the stand is composed of shrubs of canyon live oak, then it is assigned to a shrub series [ see Canyon live oak shrub series, Interior live oak-canyon live oak-shrub series].
Plot based descriptions:Gray (1978) describes stands at Snow Mountain in Lake Co. m-NorCo.; Gudmunds & Barbour (1987) stands in Middle Yuba River m-SN.Mize (1973) defines one association in w. Marble Mountain Wilderness, Sawyer & Stillman (1978) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Specimen Creek, Sawyer & Stillman (1977a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) two associations at Williams Point candidate RNA in Siskiyou Co., Taylor & Teare (1979a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) define one association at Manzanita Creek candidate RNA, Thornburgh (1987) in Keeler-Wolf 1990e) one association at Hennessey Ridge in Trinity Co. l-Kla , m-KlaR; Talley (1974) describes stands in the Santa Lucia Mountains in Monterey Co. [Borchert's analysis of Talley's plot data, using TWINSPAN resulted in two associations in this series- see Santa Lucia fir-canyon live oak series, White alder series. This analysis is on file at NDDB]. Campbell (1980) defines one association in Santa Barbara Co. o-CenCo; Griffin (1976a), Borchert (1987) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at South Fork of Devil's Canyon RNA (now part of the Cone Peak Gradient RNA) in Monterey Co. m-CenCo; Taylor & Randall (1977a) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Peavine Point RNA in El Dorado Co. m-SN; Meier (1979) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Fern Canyon RNA in Riverside Co., Minnich (1980b) reports tree density fo r m-TraR stands, Myatt (1980) interprets moisture relations in m-SN trees, White & Sawyer (1995) define one association in San Bernardino Co., m-TraR; Keeler-Wolf (1986e, 1988e) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) reports tree density at Hall Canyon RNA in Riverside o., Gordon & White (1994) defines two associations m-PenR.
Series Association:Campbell (1980); Canyon live oak-madrone- tanoak association. Griffin (1976a): Sugar pine-canyon live oak association [as Pine/oak woodland [= Borchert (1987)]. Gordon & White (1994): Canyon live oak association, Canyon live oak-deerbrush association [= Keeler-Wolf (1986e, 1988a), = White (1994)]. Meier (1979): Canyon live oak association [as Oak woodland type]. Mize (1973): Canyon live oak - Douglas-fir association. NDDB: Canyon live oak/Lemmon catchfly association. Sawyer & Stillman (1977a): Canyon live-Oregon white oak/goldenback fern association, Canyon live oak/narrowleaf sword fern association [= Sawyer & Stillman 1978b)]. Taylor & Randal (1977a): Canyon live oak/Indian manzanita association. Taylor & Teare (1979a): Douglas-fir - canyon live oak association [= Thornburgh (1987)].
FormationMixed needle-leafed evergreen-cold deciduous forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Canyon live oak series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Canyon live oak series
Common species: View common species for: Canyon live oak series

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