Black oak series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<40 m
Series canopy cover:c
Series ground layer:sg
Elevation range (lower):60
(upper):   2500
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:various aspects and topographic settings. Soils moderately to excessively drained.
Reference:Black oak range in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972); silvics (McDonald 1990b). Allen et al. (1989, 1991), Allen-Diaz & Holtzman (1991), Barbour (1988), Gemmill (1980), Griffin (1977), MacDonald (1980a), Pavlik et al. (1991) Paysen et al. (1980).
Comments:Stands of this series are often described as forests or woodlands. This series is extensive at low and montane elevations in Cis-CA. Some stands appear self-maintaining, and others originate after disturbance. Keeler-Wolf (1990e) qualitatively describes black oak-dominated stands at Hosselkus Limestone candidate RNA in Shasta Co. l-KlaR; Keeler-Wolf (1990d) at Indian Creek candidate RNA in Tehama Co. f-CasR.
Plot based descriptions:Allen et al. (1989, 1991) define 11 black oak subseries based on tree and shrub data. They are called associations here. Thornburgh (1981), Keeler-Wolf (1989i) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describe stands at Ruth candidate RNA in Trinity Co., Newton (1987) in Keeler-Wolf 1990e) describes stands at Devil's Basin candidate RNA in Tehama Co. i-NorCo; Jimerson (1993) defines one association in Six Rivers National Forest, Wainwright & Barbour (1984) one associa-tion in Annadel State Park in Sonoma Co. o-NorCo; (Palmer 1981) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) describes one stand at Sugar Pine Point RNA in Nevada Co., Keeler-Wolf (1987f) in Keeler -Wolf (1990e) defines one association at Grizzly Mountain RNA in Mariposa Co. m-SN; Keeler-Wolf (1986d, 1989m) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) one association at Cahuilla Mountain RNA in Riverside Co. m-PenR.
Series Association:Allen et al. (1991): Black oak-canyon live oak/poison-oak association, Black oak-coast live oak-pine/ocean spray association, Black oak/deerbush association, Black oak/deerbush-poison-oak/bracken association, Black oak/grass association, Black oak/greenleaf manzanita association, Black oak-madrone-coast live oak association, Black-oak/poison-oak association, Black oak/poison-oak/grass association, Black oak/poison-oak storax/grass nut association, Black oak-valley oak/grass association, Canyon live oak-black oak association, Mixed oak-coast live oak/poison-oak association. Keeler-Wolf (1986b, 1990b): Coulter pine-black oak association. Keeler-Wolf (1987f): Black oak association. Jimerson (1993): Black oak - Douglas-fir - bigleaf maple association. Wainwright & Barbour (1984): Black oak - Douglas-fir association.
FormationMixed needle-leafed evergreen-cold deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Black oak series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Black oak series
Common species: View common species for: Black oak series

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