Black willow series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<30 m
Series canopy cover:c
Series ground layer:v
Elevation range (lower):0
(upper):   500
Wetland information:Wetlands:habitats seasonally flooded, saturated. Water chemistry: fresh. Floodplains; low-gradient depositions along rivers, streams; meadow edges. Cowardin class: Palustrine forested or shrub-scrub wetland. The national inventory of wetland plants (Reed 1988) ists black willow as a OBL.
Upland information: [not available]
Reference:Bowler (1989), Capelli & Stanley (1984), Faber et al. (1989), Holstein (1984), Paysen et al. (1980).
Comments:Willow stands may or may not be dominated by a single species. If no dominant willow is present at low elevations, then place the stands in the Mixed willow series. Montane and subalpine willow stands are placed in separate classes since other willow species are restricted to those elevations [see Montane wetland shrub habitat, Sub-alpine wetland shrub habitat]. Stands of Black willow have environmental conditions similar to alder, cottonwood, and other willow series [see Arroyo willow series, Black cottonwood series, Fremont cottonwood series, Hooker willow series, Pacific willow series, Red alder series, Red willow series, Sitka willow series, White alder series].
Plot based descriptions:not available.
Series Association:[not available]
FormationCold-deciduous woodland
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Black willow series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Black willow series
Common species: View common species for: Black willow series

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