Bigcone Douglas-fir - canyon live oak series
Section: tree Series Dominated by Trees
Series formation: 
Series height:<30 m
Series canopy cover:c
Series ground layer:s
Elevation range (lower):275
(upper):   2400
Wetland information:[not available]
Upland information: Uplands:all aspects. Soils shallow, well-drained.
Reference:Douglas-fir and canyon live oak ranges in CA (Griffin & Critchfield 1972), silvics McDonald (1990a), Thornburgh (1990). Barbour (1988), Cooper (1922), McDonald & Littrell (1976), Minnich (1976, 1980, 1982), Pavlik et al. (1991), Sawyer et al. (1977), Shreve (1927).
Comments:Bigcone Douglas-fir is dominant in the Bigcone Douglas-fir series and canyon live oak is dominant in the Canyon live oak series. Here they share dominance in the tree canopy. In this series the canopy is two-tiered, with a uppe r tier of conifer trees above a lower tier of canyon live oak.
Plot based descriptions:McDonald & Littrell (1976), Minnich (1976, 1980a, 1982) describe stands in So-CA; White (1994a) stands at Cleghorn Canyon candidate RNA in San Bernardino Co., Keeler-Wolf (1988d) in Keeler-Wolf (1990e) stands at Millard Canyon RNA in Riverside Co. i. m- raR.
Series Association:[not available]
FormationTemperate or sub-polar needle-leaved evergreen forest
Geographical associated regions: View Regions for: Bigcone Douglas-fir - canyon live oak series
Representative Image: View Representative Photograph for: Bigcone Douglas-fir - canyon live oak series
Common species: View common species for: Bigcone Douglas-fir - canyon live oak series

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